This study had two broad objectives: (1) to assess national vulnerability and impact on major diseases of increased climate variability and extreme events in Bangladesh; and (2) to assess existing institutional and implementation capacity, financial resources at the local level, and existing public programs targeted at climate-sensitive diseases. Three key messages emerge from this study: First, the health impacts of increased climate variability and extreme weather events are projected to be significant by 2050, but well-targeted development investments can mitigate the excess health burden attributable to climate change. Second, rapid urbanization and a growing urban slum population are quickly changing the population dynamics in Bangladesh, and this has implications for climate-induced health risks. Third, given the seasonality effects and the role of confounding factors, the allocation of public resources to deal with climate health risks in the future should be spatially targeted to reach locations that are likely to be at high climate and health risk to ensure cost-effectiveness. Overall, climate change imposes a considerable additional burden on Bangladeshi society, and this burden falls disproportionately on the vulnerable poorer groups of population having lower adaptive capacity. It is my hope that this study contributes to a sound understanding of the health impacts of climate change in the context of Bangladesh and supports policymakers in their efforts to address these impacts. This report also explores cost-effectiveness analysis vs. the typical cost-benefit analysis.